Lok Sabha passes MMDR amendment bill: Bill/Act/Lok Sabha Basics Explained

The Lok Sabha passed the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2021 that will do away with the distinction between captive and non-captive mines, allow captive mines to sell up to 50% of the minerals excavated during the current year, and help auction more mines.

The Bill will also allow the union government conduct auctions for those blocks wherein the “state governments face challenges in conducting auction or fail to conduct it“, with the revenues accruing from such blocks going to the state government’ exchequer.

The Bill empowers the Central Government to issue directions regarding composition and utilization of funds maintained by the District Mineral Foundation. The Bill provides that captive mines other than atomic minerals may sell up to 50 per cent of their annual mineral production in the open market after meeting their own needs.  seeks to introduce an index-based mechanism by developing a National Mineral Index (NMI) for statutory payments. The National Mineral Exploration Trust (NMET), to see the functioning of the sector, will be made an autonomous body.



A bill is a draft statute that is presented in either houses of the parliament; These are legislative proposals that are introduced in the forms of bills.

Types of Bills In India

  1. Ordinary Bills

An ordinary bill (Articles 107 and 108) is concerned with any matter other than financial subjects; Can be introduced in either House of the Parliament; can be introduced by Minister or a Private member. There is no recommendation of President is required in case of ordinary bill. Ordinary bill can be amended/rejected by Rajya Sabha and it can be detained by Rajya Sabha for a period of six months. There is a provision of joint sitting in case of ordinary bill.

  1. Money Bill

Money bills are those bills which are concerned with financial matters like taxation, public expenditure, etc. These are those bills that contain provisions that deal with all or any of the matters specified in Article 110 of the Indian Constitution. This bill is presented only in Lok Sabha. It is introduced only by the Minister. Money bill is introduced only after the President recommendation. This bill cannot be amended or rejected by Rajya Sabha. It can be detained by Rajya Sabha for the maximum period of 14 days. There is no provision of joint sitting in case of money bill.

  1. Financial Bill

As per Article 117 of the Indian Constitution, financial bills are those bills which are concerned with financial matters but are different from money bills. Financial bills are further classified as Financial bills Categories A and B. Category A Bills contain provisions dealing with any of the matters specified in sub- clause a to f of clause 1 of Article 110 Indian Constitution and Category B Bills involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India.

Constitutional Amendment Bill

Article 368 of the Indian Constitution is concerned with the provisions of amendment of the Constitution.

 How a Bill becomes an Act

After a Bill has been passed by both Houses, it is presented to the President for his assent.  The President can assent or withhold his assent to a Bill or he can return a Bill, other than a Money Bill, for reconsideration.  If the Bill is again passed by the Houses, with or without amendment made by the President, he shall not withhold assent there from.  But, when a Bill amending the Constitution passed by each House with the requisite majority is presented to the President, he shall give his assent thereto.

A Bill becomes an Act of Parliament after being passed by both the Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President.

The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of adult suffrage.    

Shri G.V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha. Shri M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha

  The Lok Sabha consists of not more than five hundred and thirty Members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, not more than twenty Members to represent the Union Territories [Article 81] and not more than two Members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the President, if he/she is of the opinion that the Anglo-Indian Community is not adequately represented in the Lok Sabha [Article 331].   

Parliament passed the Constitution (126th Amendment) Bill, extending reservation for SC/STs(Art334) but doing away with the provision for nomination of Anglo Indians to Lok Sabha and some state Assemblies


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