The Climate Change Performance Index 2023: Basics Explained

India climbed two spots to rank eighth out of 63 nations in the Climate Change Performance Index 2023 (CCPI); the country earned a ‘high’ rating in the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Energy Use categories, with a ‘medium’ for Climate Policy and Renewable Energy. The country is on track to meet its 2030 emissions targets (compatible with a well-below-2°C scenario). However, the renewable energy pathway is not on track for the 2030 target,” it noted. India’s ranking in categories: In GHGs, it ranked at 9, at 24 in Renewable Energy, 9 in Energy Use and 8 on Climate Policy.

          India has established itself in the top group and even improved by two ranks (now ranked 8). Above all, India benefits from low per capita emissions and energy use. Its growing share of renewable energy also received high marks in the new CCPI. India has updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and announced a net-zero target for 2070. However, experts highlight that a carbon pricing mechanism and concrete action plans for achieving the targets are still missing.

              The first three spots of the index remained empty, as no country no country performed well enough in all categories to achieve an overall high rating. Denmark ranked fourth, followed by Sweden.

               In contrast, the worst performers in the overall ranking are Iran, Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan. The three countries are particularly weak in renewables and heavily reliant on oil. Saudi Arabia is the country with the highest per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among the G20 nations



Since 2005, the CCPI has provided analysis of countries’ climate protection performance. CCPI is an instrument to enable transparency in national and international climate politics. The CCPI uses a standardized framework to compare the climate performance of 59 countries and the EU, which together account for 92% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Using standardised criteria, the CCPI looks at four categories, with 14 indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions (40% of the overall score), Renewable Energy (20%), Energy Use (20%), and Climate Policy (20%). It creates transparency in climate policy, makes it possible to compare climate protection efforts, and lets you see progress and setbacks.

LEARNING FROM HOME/ WITHOUT CLASSES/ BASICS ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE is a change caused by human activity. CLIMATE CHANGE:  Climate Change refers to any change in climate over time whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. Global warming is the long-term heating of Earth’s climate system observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900) due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere. The term is frequently used interchangeably with the term climate change, though the latter refers to both human- and naturally-produced warming and the effects it has on our planet. Greenhouse gases allow sunlight (shortwave radiation) to pass through the atmosphere freely, where it is then partially absorbed by the surface of the Earth. Greenhouse gases are able to trap heat (longwave radiation) in the atmosphere, keeping the Earth’s surface warmer than it would be if they were not present. These gases are the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. Increases in the number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere enhances the greenhouse effect which is creating global warming and consequently climate change. So the more greenhouse gases you have in the atmosphere, the more heat stays on Earth. The principal forcing greenhouse gases are: Carbon dioxide (CO2); Methane (CH4); Nitrous oxide (N2O); Fluorinated gases   UNFCCC The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. The UNFCCC is a “Rio Convention”, one of three adopted at the “Rio Earth Summit” in 1992. Preventing “dangerous” human interference with the climate system is the ultimate aim of the UNFCCC. The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations “at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system.” PARIS AGREEMENT The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions, mitigation and adaptation. The Paris agreement was signed in 2015 by 195 countries. The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016. the Paris Agreement mandates all countries to take action to minimise the impact of climate change as per their voluntary commitments and individual capacity. It sets a global goal of keeping global average temperatures from rising 2°C (compared to temperatures of pre-Industrial Revolution) by the end of the century. Adaptation can be understood as the process of adjusting to the current and future effects of climate change. ‘Adaptation to climate change’ refers to the vast range of actions societies can take to reduce the adverse impacts of global warming on the environment, society, public health, the economy and more. Climate adaptation includes measures such as developing and rolling out new varieties of drought-resistant crops, designing better flood-defence infrastructure to protect coastal cities or riverine communities, improving early warning systems for climate-induced disasters, and restoring ecosystems that act as buffers against extreme weather. Mitigation means making the impacts of climate change less severe by preventing or reducing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Mitigation measures include deploying renewable energy at scale, replacing internal combustion engine cars and motorbikes with electric vehicles, and improving the health of the planet’s forests. These can help slow down the growth, or in certain cases even reduce the concentration, of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.



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