NFHS-5: Facts and Figures

As per the findings of latest National Family Health Survey – 5 (NFHS-5), the country’s Total Fertility Rate (TFR) slipped below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman for the first time; indicating that the country’s population might be stabilizing.

India’s total fertility rate declined from 2.2 to 2.0, while the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) has increased from 54 percent to 67 percent.

The sex ratio of the total population (females per 1,000 males) increased to 1,020 compared to 991 in 2015-16.

The sex ratio at birth, for children born in the past five years, stands at 929 females for every 1,000 males. The sex ratio at birth of just 929 for the five years preceding the latest survey is still well below the mark of 952 that the WHO estimates as the natural sex ratio at birth.

There is a significant increase in the current use of any modern contraceptive method, which stands at 56.5 percent in 2019-21 against 47.8 percent in 2015-16.

The share of condoms is 9.5 percent against 5.6 percent in 2015-16. However, the uptake of female sterilization has gone up to 38 percent against 36 in 2015-16.

The total unmet need for family planning has come down to 9.4 percent in 2019-21 against 12.9 percent in 2015-16.

Women aged 15-24 years who use hygienic methods of protection during their menstrual periods has increased from 57.6 percent to 77.3 percent.

The number of women who have a bank account they operate themselves has increased significantly from 53 percent in 2015-16 to 78.6 percent.

Access to household amenities has improved.

Child marriage has come down marginally from 27 percent in 2015-16 to 23 percent in 2019-21.


Anemia and obesity are growing causes of concern among all age groups. The incidence of anemia in under-5 children (from 58.6 to 67%), women (53.1 to 57%) and men (22.7 to 25%) has worsened in all States of India (20%-40% incidence is considered moderate).Barring Kerala (at 39.4%), all States are in the “severe” category.

Every fifth girl is still likely to get married before 18 years, the share of women (a total of urban and rural) aged 20-24 who married before turning 18 has declined from 26.8 percent to 23.3 percent.

While every third child still suffers from chronic undernourishment, and every fifth child is acutely malnourished, the share of under-five children who were stunting (low height-for-age), wasting (low weight-for-height) and underweight (low weight-for-age) has slightly declined

A third of ever-married women (aged between 18 and 49 years) reported experiencing spousal violence.

Only 1.5 percent of women aged between 18 and 29 reported experiencing sexual violence before the age of 18, which as per the PFI is indicative of significant underreporting of sexual violence against minors.

Percentage of women aged 15-19 years who were already mothers or pregnant at the time of the survey has slightly decreased from 7.9 percent to 6.8 percent.


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