Lack of ‘suitable’ jobs holding back women employment

A new paper by World Bank economists blames a “jobs deficit” for the decline in female labour force participation over the past decade. The study says a scarcity of “suitable job opportunities” outside farming and close to the place of residence are the main reasons why fewer women have joined the workforce.

According to National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), employment surveys, women participation rates in India fell sharply after 2004-05. Between 2004-05 and 2010-11, women labour participation in rural areas fell 12-14 percentage points.

Other explanations are greater involvement in domestic duties and care work, poor skills training, lack of support for women entrepreneurs, occupational segregation and informality of work.

India ranks 120 among 131 countries on women labour participation, according to a report by International Labour Organization. Traditionally, this has been blamed on a culturally patriarchal society and rising family incomes that allow more women to stay at home.


 One-Stop Crisis Centre for women in distress; A Women and Child development ministry’s initiative, the Centre would act as a one-stop facility to provide all kinds of aid to women in distress including medical help, counselling, legal and police assistance, while ensuring anonymity of the victim. The Centre will be mandated to provide legal, medical and psychological assistance to distressed women. There are many scenarios when women, who are stalked, molested, raped or experience violence are not willing to go to a police station. So the idea is to provide them all assistance at one place while maintaining their privacy. The victims of rape, dowry harassment and domestic violence will get medical aid and also help in filing FIRs, legal advice and psychological counselling.

Beti bachao beti Padhao (BBBP) Yojana (save daughter, educate daughter) to save and empower the girl child; Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination; Ensuring survival & protection of the girl child  and  Ensuring education and participation of the girl child; coordinated and convergent efforts to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child.

 Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005: The amendments of 2005 gave equal right to daughters in coparcener properties by removing the discrimination that existed in the original enactment, the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 against Hindu women on rights over ancestral properties. The Supreme Court (October 2015), interpreted the succession law, declared that the provisions of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, are applicable “prospectively” [on and from September 9, 2005, when the Act came into force], and not with “retrospective” effect as held by some High Courts in the country. The Karnataka High Court had held that daughters would be entitled to equal share even if father had died prior to September 9, 2005, when litigations over partition were pending in courts.

The Delhi High Court( September 2015) allowed women to be granted permanent commission in the Navy, ensuring that women naval officers enjoyed rights similar to their counterparts in the Army and the Air Force.

Navy treated women officers as a group entitled only to a short service commission of 14 years and men were entitled to both short service and permanent commissions.

The Supreme Court(January 2016) said no temple or governing body can bar a woman from entering the famous Sabarimala shrine in Kerala where lakhs of devotees throng annually to worship.


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