Human Development Index: India ranked 132nd

Read:ExplainSpeaking: How to read the latest Human Development Report | Explained News,The Indian Express

India ranked 132nd, in the medium human development category, among 191 countries and territories on the 2021 Human Development Index (HDI), showed a report by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). In the 2020 report, India had ranked 131st among 189 countries and territories. The decline in the country’s performance from its previous level was on account of a fall in life expectancy. India’s latest HDI value of 0.633 places the country, lower than its value of 0.645 in the 2020 report.

         India’s expected years of schooling stands at 11.9 years, down from 12.2 years in the 2020 report, although the mean years of schooling is up at 6.7 years from 6.5 years in the 2020 report. The mean years of schooling for females declined from 12.6 to 11.9 years in the corresponding period.

Although India retained its 132nd position in the Gender Development Index, the female life expectancy dropped from 71 years in the 2020 report to 68.8 years in the 2021 report.

Among India’s neighbours, Sri Lanka (73rd), China (79th), Bangladesh (129th), and Bhutan (127th) are ranked above India, while Pakistan (161st), Nepal (143rd), and Myanmar (149th) are worse off. The report said around 90 per cent of countries registered a decline in their HDI value in 2020 or in 2021.

India scored 0.123 in the Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) with a headcount ratio of 27.9 per cent, with 8.8 per cent population reeling under severe multidimensional poverty. Over the last decade, India has lifted a staggering 271 million out of multidimensional poverty, the report noted. The report lauds India’s efforts through pilot projects to ensure a minimum guaranteed income.

set of human development indices that the HDR compiles. These include:

1. HDI

2. Inequality-adjusted HDI

3. Gender Development Index

4. Gender Inequality Index

5. Multidimensional Poverty Index

6. Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index

1. Human Development Index

2. Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)

The below table details not just the income inequality in India but also looks at how much of India’s HDI falls if one were to adjust or correct it for the inequality in the country. The relative difference between IHDI and HDI values is the loss due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI within the country.

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3. Gender Development Index (GDI)

The GDI essentially estimates HDI values for women and men and then looks at the ratio. The closer this ratio is to 1, the smaller the gender gap between women and men in HDI terms.

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4. Gender Inequality Index (GII)

The GII looks at the issue of gender inequality by preparing a composite measure using three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. The reproductive health indicators are maternal mortality ratio and adolescent

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5. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

The Multidimensional Poverty Index captures the multiple deprivations that people in developing countries face in their health, education and standard of living.

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Pakistani economist Mahbub-ul-Haq developed Human Development Index (HDI) as a measure to track progress on three key dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, access to education, and a decent standard of living in 1990 with the objective — “people are the real wealth of nations”. It is calculated using the following four indicatorslife expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and the per capita Gross National Income.


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