12th Vishwa Hindi Sammelan in Fiji: Basics Explained

The World Hindi Conference co-hosted by the governments of India and Fiji from February 15-17 in Nadi, Fiji was inaugurated External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar. The main theme of the conference is “Hindi – Traditional Knowledge to Artificial Intelligence”.

The concept of World Hindi Conferences was envisaged by Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti, Wardha in 1973. As a result, the first World Hindi Conference was organized four and half decades back from January 10-12, 1975 in Nagpur, India. To date 11 World Hindi Conferences have been organized in different parts of the world.

Hindi is the 3rd most spoken language of the world in 2019 with 615 million speakers. The 22nd edition of the world language database Ethnologue stated English at the top of the list with 1,132 million speakers. Chines Mandarin is at the second position with 1,117 million speakers. Bangla has been ranked as the 7th most spoken language of the world. Bangla has 228 million native speakers.

According to the 2011 census, 528 million Indians speak Hindi as against Bengali (97.2 million), Marathi (83 million) Telugu (81 million) and Tamil (69 million) speakers.


The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution consists of the following 22 languages:- (1) Assamese, (2) Bengali, (3) Gujarati, (4) Hindi, (5) Kannada, (6) Kashmiri, (7) Malayalam, (8)  Marathi, (09)  Oriya, (10) Punjabi, (11) Sanskrit, , (12) Tamil, (13) Telugu, (14) Urdu.

Of these languages, 14 above were initially included in the Constitution. Sindhi language was added in 1967(21st Amendment Act). Thereafter three more languages viz., Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali (71st Amendment Act)  were included in 1992. Subsequently Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santhali were added in 2004 (91st Amendment Act).

Article 29 of the Constitution provides that a section of citizens having a distinct language, script or culture have the right to conserve the same.

Part 8Official Language
Chapter ILanguage Of The Union
343Official language of the Union
344Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language
Chapter IIRegional Languages
345Official language or languages of a State
346Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union
347Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State
Chapter IIILanguage Of The Supreme Court, High Courts, Etc
348Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
349Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language
Chapter IVSpecial Directives
350Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances
350AFacilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage
350BSpecial Officer for linguistic minorities
351Directive for development of the Hindi language


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